Jurnal Kedokteran YARSI
Pengaruh Pajanan Gelombang Telepon Seluler Terhadap Struktur Histologi Limpa pada Mencit (Mus musculus)

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Jumat, 24 Januari 2014 21:13

The Influence of Cellular Telephone Electromagnetic Wave Exposure on Spleen Histology of Mice (Mus musculus)

JURNAL KEDOKTERAN YARSI 20 (3) : 167-173 (2012)

by
Mayfuza Husain1, Sri Nabawiyati Nurul Makiyah2
1Medical Study Program, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Muhammadiyah University, Yogyakarta,
2Department of Histology & Biology, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences. Muhammadiyah University, Yogyakarta

 

KATA KUNCI Limpa; mencit; radiasi gelombang telepon seluler; pulpa putih; sistem imun
KEYWORDS Spleen; cellular telephone wave radiation; mice; white pulp; immune system


ABSTRAK

Radiasi elektromagnetik yang dihasilkan oleh gelombang telepon seluler dapat
berpotensi menimbulkan gangguan kesehatan apabila seseorang terpajan
melampaui ambang batas pemajanan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk
mengetahui pengaruh pajanan radiasi gelombang telepon seluler terhadap
sistem imunitas mencit (Mus musculus) dengan mengukur diameter pulpa
putih limpa. Jenis penelitian adalah eksperimental menggunakan mencit (Mus
musculus) jantan, berat badan ± 30 gram, selama 30 hari perlakuan. Perlakuan
dibagi menjadi empat kelompok, yaitu kelompok kontrol, kelompok perlakuan
dengan telepon seluler GSM jenis monophonic, kelompok perlakuan dengan
telepon seluler GSM jenis polyphonic dan kelompok perlakuan dengan telepon
seluler CDMA, masing-masing terdiri dari lima ekor mencit. Dengan Lama
pemajanan ±120 menit selama 30 hari. Pada hari ke-31 dilakukan dekapitasi
pada mencit, organ limpa diambil, dibuat preparat histologi dengan teknik
pewarnaan HE dan diukur diameter pulpa putih limpa. Hasil penelitian
menunjukkan bahwa diameter pulpa putih limpa pada mencit yang diberi
perlakuan tampak lebih besar bila dibandingkan dengan mencit kontrol secara
bermakna (p<0,05). Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa antara kelompok perlakuan
radiasi gelombang telepon seluler dan kelompok kontrol berbeda secara
bermakna, khususnya pada kelompok CDMA. Disimpulkan bahwa radiasi
elektromagnetik mempunyai efek mengaktivasi sistem imun di daerah perifer.


ABSTRACT

Electromagnetic radiation waves generated by cellular phones can potentially
cause health problems if an individual is exposed beyond the threshold exposure.
This study aimed to determine the effect of cellular phone radiation exposure on
the immune system of mice (Mus musculus) by measuring the diameter of the
splenic white pulp. Some 20 male mice weight approximately ± 30 g were used
in this study for 30 days of treatment. The experimental animals were divided
into four groups, namely control group, the group treated with GSM mobile
phone type of monophonic, the group treated with a GSM mobile phone
polyphonic type and the group treated with CDMA mobile phone, each
consisting of five mice, with long exposure of ± 120 minutes for 30 consecutive
days. On day-31 mice were sacrificed, the spleen was taken and histology
preparations were made employing HE staining technique and the diameter of
the splenic white pulp was measured. The results showed that the diameter of
the splenic white pulp treated mice was significantly (p <0.05) bigger compared
to the control mice. This suggested that significant difference was observed
between the treatment groups which were all cell phone radiation and the
control group, especially in the CDMA. It was concluded that electromagnetic
radiation has the potential effect of activating the immune system in the
peripheral areas.



 
Pola dan Sensitivitas Antibiotik Bakteri Yang Berpotensi Sebagai Penyebab Infeksi Nosokomial di Ruang Rawat Bedah RSUDZA Banda Aceh

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Jumat, 24 Januari 2014 21:10

Pattern and Antibiotics’ Sensitivity of Bacteria Potentially Causing Nosocomial Infection at Surgical Wards, RSUDZA,Banda Aceh

JURNAL KEDOKTERAN YARSI 20 (3) : 158-166 (2012)

by
Zinatul Hayati, Azwar, Ira Puspita
Faculty of Medicine, SYIAH KUALA UNIVERSITY, Banda Aceh
KATA KUNCI Infeksi nosokomial; Pola bakteri; Sensitivitas antibiotik
KEYWORDS Nosocomial infection; Bacteria Pattern; Antibiotic Sensitivity


ABSTRAK

Infeksi Nosokomial masih menjadi masalah serius di rumah sakit baik di
Indonesia maupun di dunia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pola
bakteri dan sensitivitasnya terhadap antibiotik serta sumber penularan yang
berpotensi sebagai penyebab infeksi nosokomial di Ruang Rawat Bedah
RSUDZA. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif melalui metode
observasional laboratorium. Sampel penelitian diambil dari Ruang Rawat Bedah
RSUDZA berupa spesimen yang terdiri dari usap tangan/hidung/luka pasien,
tangan/hidung tenaga kesehatan, peralatan, mobiler ruangan dan udara
ruangan. Spesimen yang diperoleh dilakukan kultur dan uji sensitivitas
antibiotik di Laboratorium Mikrobiologi Klinik RSUDZA. Data dianalisis
secara deskriptif dan ditampilkan dalam bentuk tabel dan gambar. Hasil
penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa 64 spesimen yang diperoleh, 36 spesimen
(56,25%) diantaranya terisolasi bakteri sebanyak 38 isolat, sementara 28
spesimen (43,75%) lainnya steril. Hasil identifikasi dari 38 isolat bakteri
ditemukan bakteri patogen sebanyak 10 isolat (26,31%) dan non patogen
sebanyak 28 isolat (76,32%). Pola kuman patogen yang berpotensi sebagai
penyebab infeksi nosokomial di Ruang Rawat Bedah RSUDZA terbanyak adalah
Staphylococcus aureus (70%), diikuti P. aeruginosa, E. coli dan Acinetobacter
sp. masing-masing 10%. Sumber penularan terbanyak yang berpotensi
menyebabkan infeksi nosokomial adalah mobiler ruangan, kemudian diikuti
dengan pasien dan tenaga kesehatan. Staphylococcus aureus masih sensitif
terhadap vankomycin dan clindamycin masing-masing sebesar 100% dan
85,71%, namun demikian semuanya telah resisten terhadap oxacillin sehingga
bakteri ini digolongkan ke dalam MRSA. Pseudomonas aeruginosa hanya
sensitif terhadap meropenem sehingga digolongkan ke dalam bakteri penghasil
ESBL. Escherichia coli masih sensitif terhadap antibiotik golongan
cephalosporin, fluoroquinolon dan meropenem sedangkan Acinetobacter sp
sudah resisten terhadap antibiotik golongan cephalosporin, fluoroquinolon dan
meropenem namun masih sensitif terhadap gentamisin dan tobramisin.

 

ABSTRACT

Nosocomial infection still remains a serious problem in Indonesia and
worldwide. The aims of this research is to determine the pattern and the
sensitivity of bacteria as well as the source of infection as a potential cause of
nosocomial infections in surgery ward of RSUDZA. This research was a
descriptive research through laboratory observational method. Sampels for this
research were taken from the surgical ward RSUDZA consisting of hands, nose
and wound swabs of patients, hospital workers’, equipment swabs, swabs of
room’s furnitures, and air in the room. These specimens were cultured and
tested for antibiotic sensitivity in Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, RSUDZA.
The results were analyzed descriptively and presented in tables and pictures. Of
the 64 specimens tested, a total of 38 bacterial isolates were successfully isolated
from 36 specimens (56,25%), while the remaining 28 specimens were sterile.
Identification of the 38 bacterial isolates revealed that 10 of the specimens
(26,31%) were pathogenic bacteria and 28 of the specimens (76,32%) were nonpathogenic
bacteria. The largest number of the pathogenic bacteria that
potentially becoming nosocomial infection agent in surgical ward RSUDZA
were Staphylococcus aureus (70%), followed by P. aeruginosa, E. coli and
Acinetobacter sp, respectively. The highest number of spreading source causing
nosocomial infection was the furnitures, followed by patients and hospital
workers’ swabs. Staphylococcus aureus was still sensitive to vancomycin
(100%) and clindamycin (85,71%), but all of them were resistant to oxacyllin,
and therefore, the bacteria could be classified as MRSA. Pseudomonas
aeruginosa was only sensitive to meropenem, and thus it was classified as ESBL
producer bacteria. Escherichia coli was still sensitive to antibiotic groups of
cephalosporin, fluoroquinolon and meropenem, whereas, Acinetobacter sp was
resistant to antibiotic group of cephalosporin, fluoroquinolon and meropenem,
but was still sensitive to gentamycin and tobramycin.

 
Faktor-Faktor Yang Berhubungan Dengan Partisipasi Ibu Untuk Menimbang Balita ke Posyandu

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Factors Associated with Maternal Participation for Weighing Toddler at Integrated Health Post (Posyandu)

JURNAL KEDOKTERAN YARSI 20 (3) : 143-157 (2012)

Reihana1, Artha Budi Susila Duarsa2
1Provincial Health Office, Province of Lampung
2Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, YARSI University, Jakarta
KATA KUNCI Gizi; balita; makanan tambahan
KEYWORDS Nutrition; toddler; supplementary feeding


ABSTRAK

Salah satu tujuan Posyandu adalah memudahkan memantau keadaan gizi anak
balita serta membantu pencegahan dini masalah gizi. Kasus kurang gizi dan
gizi buruk sulit ditemukan di masyarakat, karena ibu tidak menimbang
balitanya ke Posyandu. Di Kota Bandar Lampung tahun 2009 cakupan D/S dan
cakupan N/D pada balita belum mencapai standar KW-SPM, pada Puskesmas
Panjang sejak tahun 2006 sampai tahun 2008 menunjukkan trend yang
menurun dari 89,2% pada tahun 2006, menjadi 75,8% tahun 2007, dan tahun
2008 hanya 70,71%. Tahun 2009 meningkat menjadi 82,6% namun di wilayah
kerja Puskesmas Panjang masih ditemukan 2 kasus gizi buruk.
Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan
tingkat partisipasi ibu menimbang Balita ke Posyandu. Penelitian dengan
desain studi croos sectional, dilakukan pada bulan Desember 2010 pada 407
orang ibu yang mempunyai balita sampai umur 60 bulan.
Hasil penelitian didapatkan 54,8% ibu berpartisipasi aktif menimbang balita ke
Posyandu, hal ini menunjukan bahwa partisipasi ibu untuk menimbang balita
ke Posyandu di wilayah Puskesmas Panjang belum optimal. Hasil uji statistik
menunjukan ada hubungan yang bermakna antara pendidikan ibu, pengetahuan
ibu, dukungan keluarga, kehadiran petugas, pemberian makanan tambahan,
motivasi, dan umur balita dengan partisipasi ibu. Variabel yang paling
dominan pengaruhnya adalah interaksi antara pengetahuan ibu dengan
pendidikan ibu setelah dikontrol variabel pendidikan ibu, umur balita, motivasi
dan dukungan keluarga dengan nilai OR 4,614.
Saran yang diberikan adalah perlu dilakukan pendekatan secara Komprehensif
dalam meningkatkan kunjungan ibu datang ke Posyandu melalui pengaktifan
Pokjanal, pemberian makanan tambahan, penyuluhan pada saat hari buka
Posyandu, peningkatan sumber daya manusia dalam pengadaan PMT
penyuluhan dan pemulihan.


ABSTRACT

Posyandu as a health care activity in the community may facilitate monitoring
for the toddler and nutrition which may help to prevent nutritional
problems. Cases of malnutrition and poor nutrition are hardly detected in
society due to the mother’s negligence to weigh their toddler at Posyandu. In
2009, the coverage of D/S and N/D in infants in Bandar Lampung was below KW-SPM standard i.e.
D/S of 79% and N/D of 84.90% respectively.
During 2006 – 2008, in Panjang Public Health Center (Puskemas) a decrease
trend was observed, i.e 89.2% in 2006, 75.8% in 2007 and 70.71% in
2008. Despite increase coverage in 2009, two cases of malnutrition were
identified in Panjang Health Center.
In this study using, a cross sectional study design was conducted in December
2010 on 407 individual involving mother of toddlers until 60 months of age.
Only 54,8% mothers actively visit and weigh their toddlers at Posyandu wich
means that their participation was less optimum. Statistical analysis showed
significant correlation between mother’s education, mother’s knowledge, family
support, presence of health personnel, supplementary feeding, motivation,
toddler’s age and mother’s participation in attending Posyandu to weigh their
toddlers. The dominant variables influencing the participation of mother to
weigh their toddlers at Posyandu were mother’s knowledge and education
following controlled on mother’s education, age of toddlers, motivation and
family support with OR value of 4,614.
The result suggested that comprehensive approach should be encouraged to
promote visit to Posyandu by means of Pokjanal activation, supplementary
feeding counseling upon the opening of Posyandu, and improvement of human
resources.


 
Model Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Dalam Kemampuan Mengidentifikasi Masalah Kesehatan: Studi Pada Program Desa Siaga

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Community Empowerment Model in the Ability to Identify Health Problem: A Study on the Village Preparedness Program
JURNAL KEDOKTERAN YARSI 20 (3) : 128-142 (2012)

by
Endang Sutisna Sulaeman, Ravik Karsid, Bhisma Murti, Drajat Tri Kartono, Rifai Hartanto
Department of Public Health,
Faculty of Medicine, Sebelas Maret State University Surakarta,
Indonesia.

 

KATA KUNCI Model pemberdayaan masyarakat; identifikasi masalah kesehatan; keberdayaan masyarakat
KEYWORDS Community empowerment model; health problem identification; community forcefulness

ABSTRAK

Masalah pemberdayaan masyarakat adalah lemahnya kemampuan mengidentifikasi
masalah kesehatan. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengkaji dan menganalisis
faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan pemberdayaan masyarakat
dalam kemampuan mengidentifikasi masalah kesehatan, dan merumuskan model
pemberdayaan masyarakat dalam kemampuan mengidentifikasi masalah kesehatan.
Penelitian ini menggunakan metode gabungan antara kuantitatif dan
kualitatif. Penelitian kuantitatif berupa penelitian survei dengan analisis jalur,
sedangkan penelitian kualitatif menggunakan studi kasus. Sasaran penelitian
adalah Bidan Pos Kesehatan Desa dan Forum Kesehatan Desa di 30 Desa Siaga.
Hasil penelitian: (1) Faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan pemberdayaan
masyarakat dalam kemampuan mengidentifikasi masalah kesehatan meliputi:
tingkat pendidikan, pengetahuan, kesadaran, kepedulian, kebiasaan, kepemimpinan,
modal sosial, Survei Mawas Diri, akses informasi kesehatan, peran petugas
kesehatan, dan peran fasilitator kesehatan; (2) Model pemberdayaan masyarakat
dalam kemampuan mengidentifikasi masalah kesehatan terdiri dari unsur-unsur
masukan, proses, dan keluaran. Unsur masukan terdiri dari faktor internal dan
faktor eksternal komunitas. Faktor internal meliputi: tingkat pendidikan, pengetahuan,
kesadaran, kepedulian, kebiasaan, kepemimpinan, modal sosial, serta
Survei Mawas Diri. Sedangkan faktor ekternal meliputi: akses informasi kesehatan,
peran petugas kesehatan, dan peran fasilitator. Sementara itu proses
pemberdayaan masyarakat meliputi proses pendayagunaan dan pemanfaatan
sumber daya di dalam masyarakat serta proses fasilitasi dan dukungan sumber
daya dari luar masyarakat. Keluaran pemberdayaan masyarakat berupa keberdayaan
masyarakat dalam kemampuan mengidentifikasi masalah kesehatan.

 

ABSTRACT

The weak ability to identify health problem is a problem in community
empowerment. The objective of this research is to study and analyze factors
related to community empowerment in the ability to identify health problem,
and formulating the community empowerment model in health problem
identification ability. The research method used was a combination of
quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative research is a survey with
path analysis, while the qualitative research a case study was used. The target of
research was the Midwife of Village Health Post and Village Health Forum in
30 Preparedness Village. The result of research showed (1) factors related to the
community empowerment in the ability to identify health problem were
education level, knowledge, awareness, caring, habit, leadership, social capital,
Community Self Survey (CSS), access to health information, health personnel
role, and health facilitator role; (2) the community empowerment model in the
health problem identification ability consisted of input, process and output
elements. Input element consisted of internal and external community factors.
The internal factor consisted of education level, knowledge, awareness, caring,
habit, leadership, social capital, and Community Self Survey (CSS). Meanwhile
the external factor consisted of access to health information, health personnel
role, and facilitator role. On the other hand, the community empowerment
process encompassed the efficiently resource use and utilization within the
community, and facilitation process and resource support from outside
community. The output of community empowerment constituted the
community forcefullness in the ability of identifying health problems.

 
Relationship Between Somatotype and Blood Pressure Among 30 -70 Years Old Javanese People in Sleman, Yogyakarta Province

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Jumat, 24 Januari 2014 20:58

JURNAL KEDOKTERAN YARSI 20 (3) : 118-127 (2012)
by
Neni Trilusiana Rahmawati
Laboratory of Bioanthropology, Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University Yogyakarta

KATA KUNCI endomorfi; mesomorfi; ektomorfi; tekanan darah; lansia
KEYWORDS endomorphy; mesomorphy; ectomorphy; blood pressure; elderly


ABSTRAK

Konsep somatotipe merupakan klasifikasi bentuk badan yang dapat dinyatakan
dengan angka sederhana. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji hubungan
antara somatotipe dengan tekanan darah pada populasi orang Jawa. Studi cross
sectional dilakukan terhadap penduduk di daerah kabupaten Sleman
Yogyakarta, terdiri dari 149 orang laki-laki dan 253 orang perempuan, usia
antara 30-70 tahun. Subjek penelitian dibagi dalam 4 kelompok usia, yaitu 30-
40, 41-50, 51-60 dan 61-70 tahun. Penentuan somatotipe menggunakan metode
Heath Carter. Analisa varian digunakan untuk mengetahui perbedaan antar
jenis kelamin dan antar kelompok usia. Koefisien korelasi Pearson digunakan
untuk mengetahui hubungan antara tiap komponen somatotipe dengan tekanan
darah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, kelompok perempuan secara
signifikan lebih endomorfik dan kurang ektomorfik dibandingkan kelompok lakilaki.
Tekanan Darah Sistolik (TDS) dan Tekanan Darah Diastolik (TDD)
menunjukkan kecenderungan meningkat dengan bertambahnya usia. Pada
perempuan, korelasi antara somatotipe dan tekanan darah cenderung lebih kuat
pada kelompok usia 31-40 dan 41-50, sedangkan pada laki-laki pola ini kurang
konsisten. Pada umumnya, ada hubungan positif antara tekanan darah dan
komponen endomorfi pada kedua kelompok, sedangkan antara tekanan darah
dan komponen ektomorfi cenderung negatif. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa
ponderosity dan muskularitas memiliki efek sebaliknya, namun linearitas fisik
bisa menawarkan keuntungan adaptif. Penelitian lebih lanjut dibutuhkan untuk
memahami mekanisme dari bentuk badan mana yang berhubungan dengan
faktor risiko penyakit.


ABSTRACT

The concept of somatotyping is appealing because it is a classification of total
body form that can be expressed as a simple rating. The aim of this study was to
determine the association between somatotype and blood pressure in Javanese
people. A cross sectional study was done among the residents in Sleman district
area, consisting of 149 males and 253 females, aged 30-70 years. The subjects
were divided into four groups, 30-40, 41-50, 51-60, and 61-70 years of age.
Somatotype was assessed using the Heath Carter anthropometric somatotype
method. One-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate the statistical
significance of differences between sex- and age-related groups. Pearson’s
correlation coefficients between each somatotype component and each blood
pressure were calculated. The statistical analysis showed that females were
Pressure (SBP) and Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) showed an upward
tendency with age in both sexes. The result suggests that in females, correlations
between somatotype and blood pressure tended to be stronger in 31-40 and 41-
50 age groups, while in males this pattern was less consistent. In general, for
males and females correlation between blood pressure and endomorphy were
positive, however between blood pressure and ectomorphy were negative. This
suggests that ponderosity and muscularity have the opposite effect; however
linearity of physique could offer an adaptive advantage. Further studies are
needed in this regard to understand the mechanisms by which somatotype may
be associated with risk factor for disease.

 

 
Aplikasi Klinik Renograf IR-03 untuk Rumah Sakit: Teknologi dan Analisis Biaya

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Jumat, 24 Januari 2014 20:43

Clinical Application of Renograph IR-03 in the Hospital: Technology and Cost Analysis

 

Rill Isaris1, Joko Sumanto2, Suharni3, Bagaswoto P.3, Eli Purwanti3
1,3Center forAccelerator Technology and Material Process, BATAN
2Center for Nuclear Devices Engineering, BATAN
3Dr. Sardjito Central General Hospital (RSUP Dr. Sardjito) Jogyakarta

KATA KUNCI Analisis biaya; Renograf diagnostic; diseminasi produk
KEYWORDS Cost analyses; Diagnostic Renograph; dissemination of product


ABSTRAK

Teknik Renografi menggunakan Alat Renograf adalah salah satu modalitas
pemeriksaan fungsi ginjal selain dengan pemeriksaan laboratorium dan teknik
Sinar-X. Prototip Renograf IR-03 untuk pemeriksaan fungsi ginjal hasil
rancangbangun BATAN telah dikonstruksi dan menjalani uji laboratorium di
PRPN-BATAN Serpong dan uji klinis di RSUP DR.Sardjito Jogyakarta. Biaya
yang berkaitan dengan pemakaian klinik Alat Renograf di rumahsakit telah
dianalisis yang terdiri dari komponen nilai radiofarmaka dan nilai investasi alat
Renograf. Perhitungan biaya radiofarmaka hippuran 131Iodine per tahun dengan
estimasi jumlah pasien 2000 orang sebesar Rp 30 juta, Total Direct Cost adalah
Rp 212,5 juta dan biaya modal satu Alat Renograf sebesar Rp 250 juta. Nilai
Titik Impas (Break Event Point) Investasi satu Alat Renograf adalah 1194
(0,597%) atau setara Rp 209,475 juta, dengan biaya per prosedur adalah Rp
85.000,-. Harga ini tergantung pada beberapa variable terutama volume
(kapasitas pelayanan pasien). Perhitungan analisis Cash-Flow untuk melihat
seberapa jauh investasi tersebut menarik dan memberi prospek ke masa depan
menunjukkan nilai Rate of Return yang diperoleh yaitu ROR (i*) adalah 22,6%,
jauh diatas suku bunga simpanan Bank saat ini yaitu <10%. Perhitungan
analisa Payback Period menunjukkan nilai 1,818 tahun, sangat prospektif secara
ekonomi


ABSTRACT

The renography using Renograph is one of clinical modality to investigate the
renal function among others such as laboratory medical check up and X-rays.
The prototype of Renograf IR-03 designed by BATAN has been constructed and
laboratory tests as well as clinical tests have been carried out at PRPN-BATAN
Serpong and Dr. Sardjito General Hospital Jogyakarta respectively. Cost
associated with the clinical use of Renograph at the hospital are analyzed
according to the two major components: radiopharmaceutical cost and the use of
equipment. Annual cost of operational of Renograph by estimate number of
patient is about 2000 are IDR 30.0 millions for radiopharmaceutical 131Iodine.
Total Direct Cost is about IDR 212.5 millions and the Capital Cost for one unit
Renograph is IDR 250 millions. The Break Event Point of invest one unit
Renograph is 1194 procedures (0,597%), or about IDR 209.475 millions,

in which the cost for each procedure is IDR 85.000.-. This value is depending on
several variables, especially number of procedure can be reached. The cash flow
analyses by Rate of Return (ROR) showed that the value of ( i*) is 22.6% which
is much greater than the value of MARR or rate of saving interest in the Bank
which is now about < 10%. Calculation of the Payback Period to see the
adventage of Renograph investment and its prospect for application in the
hospitals showed about 1.818 years, which is economically prospective.


 
Kondisi Rumah dan Pencemaran Udara Dalam Rumah Sebagai Faktor Risiko Kejadian Pneumonia Balita

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Jumat, 24 Januari 2014 20:36

Condition and Air Pollution of the House as Risk Factors for Pneumonia in Toddlers

JURNAL KEDOKTERAN YARSI 20 (2) : 087-101 (2012)
by
Endang Budiati1, Artha Budi Susila Duarsa2
1District office of Health , Pringsewu District, Lampung
2Department of Public Health , Faculty of Medicine, YARSI University, Jakarta

KATA KUNCI Pneumonia; balita; pencemaran
KEYWORDS Pneumoniae; toddlers; pollution


ABSTRAK

Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Pringsewu terdiri dari sepuluh Puskesmas, dengan
cakupan ISPA menempati urutan yang pertama dari sepuluh besar penyakit
sebesar 30,53% pada tahun 2009. Jumlah kasus Pneumonia Balita masih di
bawah angka Nasional yaitu 1,81% pada tahun 2009 dari target 10%. Pada
tahun 2009 pengelola program P2ISPA yang terlatih di Puskesmas sebesar
60%, cakupan Rumah Sehat pada tahun 2009 sebesar 79,99% dari target 80%.
Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara kondisi rumah,
kepadatan hunian, dan pencemaran udara dalam rumah. Disain penelitian
kasus kontrol dengan jumlah responden 240 orang yang terdiri atas kasus 120
orang dan kontrol 120. Sampel adalah seluruh balita usia 12- 59 bulan yang
tinggal di seluruh wilayah Puskesmas Kabupaten Pringsewu.
Hasil Penelitian menunjukkan ada hubungan kondisi rumah dengan kejadian
Pneumonia di Kabupaten Pringsewu. Balita dengan Kondisi Rumah yang tidak
memenuhi syarat berisiko 4,65 (95% Cl: 1,99 – 10.86) kali terkena Pneumonia
dibandingkan dengan balita yang kondisi rumahnya tidak memenuhi syarat
setelah dikontrol dengan variabel Pencemaran Udara, Berat Bayi Lahir, Status
Gizi Balita, dan interaksi antara kondisi rumah dan pencemaran udara dalam
rumah. Pencemaran udara dalam rumah berhubungan dengan kejadian
pneumonia pada balita di Kabupaten Pringsewu tahun 2010. Balita dengan
adanya Pencemaran Udara dalam rumah berisiko 7,73 (95% CI: 2,99-20,01)
kali terkena Pneumonia dibandingkan dengan balita yang tidak ada pencemaran
udara dalam rumah setelah dikontrol dengan variabel confounding kondisi
rumah, pendidikan Ibu dan interaksi antara pencemaran udara dalam rumah
dengan kondisi rumah. Upaya yang dilakukan untuk pengendalian penyakit
Pneumonia Balita di Kabupaten Pringsewu adalah promosi dan preventif
kepada masyarakat tentang penyakit pneumonia dan rumah sehat.


ABSTRACT

Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Pringsewu has ten community health care centers,
in wich ARI is the first rank of the ten major diseases by 30.53% in 2009. The
number of Pneumonia cases in toddlers is lower that of national rate figure i.e.
1.81% in 2009 from a target of 10%. In 2009, 60% ARI program administrator
trained in health care centers and the so called “healthy house” in 2009 was
only 79,99% from 80% target.

This research was conducted to determine the relationship between the condition
of the house involving residential density, and air pollution in homes, and the
development of pneumoniae. A case-control study was employed involving 240
subjects, consisted of 120 cases and 120 controls. The samples in this study
were all toddlers aged 12-59 months living in the sarrounding area of the health
care centers in Kabupaten Pringsewu.
The result showed the relationship between the house condition and the
insidence of pneumonia in the Kabupaten Pringsewu. The toddlers whose house
condition did not meet health requirements were more risky 4.65 times (95%
CI: 1.99 - 10.86) suffering from pneumonia compared with toddlers living in
non-polluted house, after being controlled by the variables i.e. Air Pollution,
Birth Weight Infants, Toddlers Nutritional Status , and the interaction between
housing conditions and air pollution in the houses. Air pollution in the houses
was associated with the insidence of pneumonia among toddlers in Kabupaten
Pringsewu in 2010. Toddlers from air polluted house were more risky of 7.73
times (95% CI: 2.99 to 20.01) sufferfing from pneumonia compared with
toddlers from non air-polluted house, after being controlled by confounding
variables namely housing conditions, education of the mother and the
interaction between air pollution in the house with house condition.
So far, the control measurements of pneumonia in toddler in Pringsewu District
were the promotir of health and prevention by community education
pneumoniae and the so called “healthy house”.

 
Fauna Nyamuk Aedes dan Kemungkinan Perannya dalam Penularan Demam Berdarah Dengue di Banjar Graha Kerti dan Banjar Kerta Petasikan, Denpasar

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Oleh Administrator   
Jumat, 24 Januari 2014 20:30

The Fauna of Aedes Mosquito and Its Potential Role in the Transmission of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in the Hamlet of Graha Kerti and Kerta Petasikan, Denpasar
JURNAL KEDOKTERAN YARSI 20 (2) : 081-086 (2012)
by
Dewa Putu Widjana1, Made Sudarmaja2, Putu Sutisna1
1Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine Warmadewa Universiy, Denpasar, Indonesia
2Faculty of Medicine Udayana University, Denpasar, Indonesia

 

KATA KUNCI
KEYWORDS Aedes larvae; House Index; Bruteau Index; Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever; Biological characteristics


ABSTRAK

Indonesia, seperti banyak negara di wilayah tropis dan subtropis lainnya,
merupakan wilayah endemik penyakit Demam Berdarah Dengue (DHF). Di
Kodya Denpasar, kasus DHF terus meningkat dari tahun ke tahun selama
kurun 2002 -2008. Penelitian cross sectional ini dilakukan di di Banjar Graha
Kerti dan Banjar Kerta Petasikan, Kelurahan Sidakarya, Denpasar, dengan
tujuan untuk mengetahui adanya larva nyamuk Aedes dan tingkat
kepadatannya di rumah penduduk di kedua lokasi tsb. Semua rumah di kedua
Banjar tsb diikutkan sebagai sampel penelitian. Semua tempat air yang
ditemukan di dalam rumah diperiksa untuk kemungkinan adanya larva nyamuk
dan ditetapkan speciesnya (Aedes, Culex dan Anopheles). Dari 262 rumah,
didapatkan sebanyak 869 tempat air tergenang dan 68 di antaranya
mengandung larva Aedes, terdiri dari 37 Aedes aegypti, 14 A. albopictus, dan
campuran A. aegypti dan A. albopictus. House Index untuk Aedes adalah
17.2% dan Bruteau Index untuk Aedes adalah 20.6%, yang menunjukkan
bahwa Aedes di Br Graha Kerti dan Banjar Kerta Petasikan mempunyai potensi
untuk menularkan kasus-kasus DHF. Disarankan agar pelaksana program
pengendalian kasus DHF di Kota Denpasar mengenali sifat-sifat biologis dari
Aedes, termasuk lokasinya dalam tempat-tempat air di rumah tangga.


ABSTRACT
Indonesia, like many other tropical and subtropical countries in the world, is an
endemic area for Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF). In the city of Denpasar,
the number of DHF cases has been increasing during the years 2002-2008. A
cross sectional study was done in Banjar Graha Kerti and Banjar Kerta
Petasikan, Sidakarya Village, Denpasar, with an objective of assessing the
presence of Aedes larvae in water containers in the houses and their rate of
density. All houses in the two banjars (hamlets) were included as the study
samples, in which the number of water containers were identified and examined
for the presence of mosquito larvae (Aedes, Culex, Anopheles). From 262 houses,
869 standing water containers were identified, from which 68 were confirmed to

have Aedes larvae, consisting of 37 Aedes aegypti, 14 A. albopictus, and the
combination of A. aegypti and A. albopictus. House Index of the Aedes larvae
was 17.2% and the Bruteau Index of the Aedes larvae was 20.6%, which
indicated that Aedes mosquitos were potential vectors for DHF transmission in
Banjar Graha Kerti and Banjar Kerta Petasikan. It is recommended that the
authority responsible for the control program of DHF in Denpasar should know
the biological characteristics of the Aedes larvae and their predominant locations
of water containers in the houses.

 

 
Isolasi dan Karakterisasi Gen merB pada Bakteri Pseudomonas sp. Sebagai Gen Resistensi Merkuri Organik

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Jumat, 24 Januari 2014 20:28

Isolation and Characterization of merB Gene in Pseudomonas sp. Bacterium as Organic Mercury-Resistant Gene

JURNAL KEDOKTERAN YARSI 20 (2) : 069-080 (2012)

by
Billy J. Kepel1,2, Fatimawali1,2, Irawan Yusuf1, Rosdiana Natsir1,
Fatmawati Badaruddin1
1Postgraduate School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine Unhas, Makassar;
2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Unsrat, Manado

KATA KUNCI merB; Pseudomonas sp.; Merkuri Organik
KEYWORDS merB; Pseudomonas sp.; Organic Mercury


ABSTRAK

Patogenesis penyakit dimana merkuri sebagai agen penyebab akan melewati
komponen lingkungan sebagai media transmisi sebelum sampai pada manusia.
Terdapat beberapa lokasi pertambangan emas rakyat di Sulawesi Utara yang
menggunakan merkuri. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengidentifikasi jenis
bakteri yang hidup pada sedimen tanah tercemar merkuri, mengisolasi dan
mengidentifikasi karakter gen merB pada bakteri tersebut.
Dilakukan uji resistensi pada fenil merkuri, identifikasi Gram dan 16S rRNA,
amplifikasi dan sekuensing gen merB, pensejajaran dan pembuatan pohon
filogenetik gen merB pada isolat bakteri resisten fenil merkuri.
Terdapat 2 isolat bakteri Pseudomonas sp. yang resisten terhadap fenil merkuri.
Gen merB pada bakteri ini mempunyai homologi sebesar 98-100% dibandingkan
dengan gen merB pada bakteri yang terdapat pada GenBank. Sisi aktif enzim
organomerkuri liase (MerB) yang dikode oleh gen merB pada posisi Cys-96,
Cys-159 dan Asp-99 tetap dipertahankan oleh gen merB kedua isolat bakteri
hasil penelitian. Terdapat 3 tempat perbedaan nukleotida merB antara kedua
isolat hasil penelitian dengan P. aeruginosa galur ARY1.
Terjadi mutasi substitusi transisi pada merB posisi Val-124 (GTC→GTT) dan
Val-136 (GTT→GTC) maupun Glu-132 (GAG) → Gly-132 (GGG) dimana
isolat 2B.2 dan 4B.2 Pseudomonas sp. sama dengan Klebsiella sp. ND3 tapi
berbeda dengan P. aeruginosa galur ARY1 walaupun genus yang sama.
Walaupun asam amino glutamat diganti oleh glisin yang berbeda sifat polaritas
tapi tidak berpengaruh pada aktifitas bioremediasi karena tempat tersebut bukan
merupakan sisi aktif.
Gen merB terdapat pada isolat bakteri lokal, Pseudomonas sp., di Sulawesi
Utara. Penelitian ini perlu dilanjutkan untuk menghasilkan kloning enzim
MerB (organomerkuri liase) dalam mengatasi masalah pencemaran merkuri.


ABSTRACT

Pathogenesis of a disease which mercury as an agent will pass through
environment before reach to the human. There are some local gold minings that
uses mercury in North Sulawesi. The study aims to identify bacteria in soil
sediment of mercury-polluted land, to isolate dan characterize merB gene in the
bacteria. Phenyl mercury-resistant test, Gram and 16S rRNA identification,
merB gene amplification and sequencing, merB gene alignment and
phylogenetic tree construction, were carried out on the phenyl mercuryresistant
isolates. There were two Pseudomonas sp. isolates that were resistence
to phenyl mercury. The merB gene in the bacteria has 98-100% homology
compared to merB gene in the GenBank bacteria. Active sites of organomercury
enzyme (MerB) that was coded for by merB gene at Cys-96, Cys-159 dan Asp-
99 were conserved in the microbe isolates. Different nucleotides in three
locations of merB were observed among the two isolates and P. aeruginosa strain
ARY1. Mutations of subtitution transition existed in the merB position of Val-
124 (GTC→GTT) and Val-136 (GTT→GTC), and also Glu-132 (GAG) → Gly-
132 (GGG) in which the 2B.2 dan 4B.2 Pseudomonas sp. were similar with
Klebsiella sp. ND3 but were different with P. aeruginosa strain ARY1 despite
the same genus. Glutamate was replaced by glisin which was different in
polarity, however bioremediation activity was not affected due to its location
was a non active site of the enzyme. The existence of merB gene in the local
bacterium isolates, Pseudomonas sp., in North Sulawesi was interesting.
Further studies are still required, particularly to generate MerB
(organomercury liase) clone which might be of useful later to overcome mercury
pollution problem.


 
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